Carl Ransom Rogers-"influential American psychologist"
. . . I have had a continuous, varied, controversial, and richly rewarding professional life" (qtd. in Evans, 1975, pp. 121-2).

Rogers came after Freud and was influenced by him as were all other theorists in this area, even when they disagreed with Freud. There were numerous criticisms of Freudian theory at the time when Rogers started work. Most of the explanations made by Freudian theory are made "after the fact." Another major criticism of Freudian theory was that it was developed from speculation based on observation of people suffering from neuroses and other problems of adjustment in clinical situations; it therefore might have little to say about healthy personality or life-styles that are not primarily defensive. There were many non-Freudian theories developed during the twenties. Most of those who followed kept Freud's basic picture of personality as a battleground in which unconscious primal urges fight it out with social values, but the theorists had a few changes in this picture as well. What these various theorists were attempting was a strong picture of the development of the personality, and several different ways of explaining such a development were offered (Zimbardo & Ruch, 1977, pp. 417-8).

One difference between Rogers and Freud concerned motivation as a way of thinking about the personality. The "actualization" of the self is seen by Rogers as a motivation for personality de

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