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Newton's Contribution in the Field of Science

. . a stone [for example] falls because its 'nature' necessitates that it move toward the center of the universe" or the planets moved in circular orbits because the circle was a divinely perfect form. But, by the seventeenth century, scientists had become disillusioned by the Aristotelian approach. They began to assume that since, "after centuries of investigation, nothing solid had been established," there must be something wrong with the method being used to study the world.

In 1628 William Harvey, who explained the body's circulatory system, demonstrated that the experimental approach to physiology produced just the kind of results that had been lacking. When Harvey, for example, cut off his own circulation with a strap in order to observe what happened, "he was imposing on nature a set of artificial conditions dictated by his question." He also showed that some organic processes could be reduced to mechanical systems that followed laws that had more general applications. The experimental method was the focus of theoretical writing by many of the most important thinkers of the century: Francis Bacon, RenT Descartes, Blaise Pascal, and others. And scientists such as Galileo and Johannes Kepler began to look at the universe as if it was subject to laws that human beings could discover. The new method devised by these men was primarily experimental, based on induction, as well as "quantitative and not merely observat


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