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Karl Kautsky & Benito Mussolini

However, the ideologies of socialism and fascism can be elaborated with some precision. In one aspect only, the fact of their normative emphasis, fascism and socialism are identical. Of course, the norms that they advocate are polar opposite, but extremism, one could say, is in the nature of ideology. The overarching conception of these ideologies, and what differentiates their respective contents most strongly, is their view of social structure as a whole. Thence proceed the Marxist or fascist views about-property, state, rights of the citizenry, economics, and so on.

The theoretical provenance of revolutionary socialism is Marxism. Carnoy (1984, p. 45) says Marx does not have a "single, coherent theory of politics and/or the State." But Marx does have a conception of the state as it relates to structure of society. For Marx, according to Carnoy, "the form of the State . . . emerges from the relations of production, not from the general development of the human mind or from the collective of men's wills (Carnoy, 1984, pp. 46-7). The concept of the competition of classes, with the economically powerful bourgeoisie typically controlling the state, is fundamental to Marxist thought. Because competition implies oppression of the weaker by the more powerful classes, Marx sees state structure as the agent of class division. only radical transformation (i.e., destruction) of society can address its problems.

Marxism takes the view that labor is a subsidiary function of capital, and the social relations of production determine value exchange. Actual labor, or use or exchange value, is essential to the production of capital, as well as to the basic livelihood of the worker. But labor will never be a simple expression of value exchange in the capitalist system. The psychology and power of class relationships affect the determination of labor's value, and capital makes the determination. Capitalism is therefore exploitative, a...

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Karl Kautsky & Benito Mussolini. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 23:31, August 18, 2017, from
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