Kautsky fell into the margins of international socialism because nationalist interests in World War I split socialists into factions and because of the success of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, of which he was suspicious because of his personal dislike of Lenin and because Lenin installed himself as dictator (Morgan, 1989). Kautsky retreated from the Marxist revolutionary stance, specifically refusing to join the United German Communist Party, which supported Bolshevism's concept of the dictatorship of the proletariat. Marcuse classifies Kautsky as a revisionist Marxist not only for that reason but also because of the related view he developed that "social laws are 'natural' laws that guarantee the inevitable development toward socialism. . . . The critical Marxist theory the revisionists thus tested by the standards of positivist sociology and transformed into natural science" (Marcuse, 1969, p. 400). Kautsky appears to have been disappointed not only by what he ultimately regarded as the excesses of Bolshevism, and in particular the dictatorship of Lenin (Donald, 1993), but also by the dramatic turn to the right in Austria and Germany after the collapse of the Weimar Republic. In 1938, at the time of the German-Austrian Anschluss, Kautsky left Vienna for Holland, where he died that same year.
Mussolini is far better known as Il Duce, the fascist dictator who came to power in Italy in 1922, than as an ideological theorist. But