Slavin (1986), reviewing the literature, finds that it has been for some time now a major legal issue in desegregation cases (e.g. Hobson vs Hansen, 1967), and that plaintiffs have argued that ability grouping is used as a means of resegregating Black and Hispanic students within ostensibly integrated schools (e.g. McPortland, 1968). Is this overzeal on the part of minorities who are extra-sensitive to matters of discrimination, or is there substance to the observation?
Furthermore, are we all talking about the same classroom organization design? And if we are, are we talking about the same target populations? Are we discussing the streamlining of children with comparable academic achievements... or comparable aptitudes... or comparable I.Q.s? And if we are dealing with aptitudes, aptitudes for what? How do we identify and measure and value aptitudes... assuming schools normally do so? If, on the other hand, we measure academic accomplishments, how do the results correlate with capabilities, with potential abilities given appropriate teaching? And if Intelligence Quotient is the criterion, what is the relationship between I.Q. and academic achievement? Moreover, many a psychologist and many a teacher hold the strong belief that I.Q. tests are racially, ethnically, culturally, and socio-