The leader of the Red Turbans was Chu Yuangchang, who later became known as Taizu or Hong Wu (Great Military Warrior) and who was described by Goodrich as a Buddhist "monk of humble origin, grotesque appearance, and more than ordinary brains, cruelty and ability to lead" (Goodrich 189). Taizu used cannon in the siege of Peking. (Gunpowder had been invented in China in the 1300s.)

The new dynasty consolidated its power during the Early Ming Period (13681424) under the forceful leadership of Taizu (13681398) and, after a four year interregnum, Yung Lo, who engineered a successful palace coup against Taizu's young grandson, and led China from 1403 to 1424. These first emperors, especially Taizu, ruled in a highly autocratic manner, suppressed the secret societies and eliminated other internal rivals. The Mongols had established a strong, centralized imperial administration, on which Taizu built. Fairbank says that Taizu virtually "decapitated the civilian bureaucracy" (Fairbank 130). To offset the power of the Confucian scholarmandarins, Taizu relied on castrated eunuchs who formed his palace guard or Inner Court. To gain control over the gentry and the villages, he instituted the lijia system, which involved a network of informers, compulsory labor service and centrallyappointed revenue collectors. Dikes and canals wer

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    Yung Lo | Ming China | Inner Court | Emperor SsuTsung | Middle Period | Empire China | Annam Korea | Emperor Wanli | Mongol Empire | Peking Li | ming dynasty | yung lo | ming china | rise fall | mongol empire | rise fall ming | history culture | ming period | red turbans | chinese civilization | consolidated power | fall ming dynasty |  
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