) The first of these, the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), was established in 1949, as an outgrowth of the U.N. truce negotiation efforts that led to the end of the 1948-49 war (Durch, 1993, p. 89). As its name indicates, it was not a full-fledged peacekeeping force, with a substantial presence on the ground, but a smaller-scale organization of truce observers, comprising reconnaissance, communications, and liaison elements. Observers attached to this organization have been in position continually since its inception.
The first true United Nations peacekeeping force in the region, UNEF I, has already been alluded to. Its zone of operation was the Sinai Peninsula, and its removal under Egyptian pressure in 1967 was soon followed by war. Although this outcome could not be called a failure of the peacekeeping mission per se, it was a major political setback for the United Nations peacekeeping role in general. No regular peacekeeping force was in place in the Sinai after 1967, until in the wake of the 1973 war, a second United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF II) was established in the peninsula. It was removed in 1979, not as a prelude to war, but in consequence of the Camp David accord that regularized relations between Egypt and Israel, and led to the return of the Sinai to Egyptian control.
In evaluating the general effectiveness of peacekeeping forces in the Sinai, it is useful to observe the rythym of war across the peninsula: two wars within seven years before UNEF I was established, ten war-free years while UNEF I was deployed, two wars within six years after it was withdrawn, and over twenty years without war since UNEF II was put in place. Obviously the fundamental reason for the persistance of peace in the Sinai since 1973 has been the mutual decision of Egypt and Israel to refrain from war as a means of resolving their differences. Nevertheless, it is notable that in spite of--or, possibly beca...
United Nations Mission on Peacekeeping. (2000, January 01). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 19:15, November 25, 2014, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1303988996.html