Additionally, some recent psychological literature has tended to strengthen the hopes and expectations of coaches and advisers that the selection, training, and performance of talented athletes could benefit from psychological insights.
The research aimed at accounting for the personality variables in motor and sports performance has had to rely on inappropriate and insensitive tools and models, namely trait theories. It is therefore not surprising that the search for links between personality and sports performance has been slow. However, in the past few years, the field of personality has matured, focusing to a great extent on the search for alternatives or extensions of trait theory. Trait theory has been under attack not so much because it is an unsound theory as because ipso facto personality traits emphasize only the personal dispositions in explaining behavior and minimize the role of situational factors. The result is that a number of alternative models and approaches have been proposed in an effort to formulate a more vital and dynamic concept of personality sensitive to situational factors in behavior.
Furthermore, methodological inconsistencies make it impossible to generalize the results of the studies. Many different instruments have been used on the same group of athletes with differing descriptions of the personality profile of the group. Similar