We have this choice because we have freedom, and we must respect our own freedom and the freedom of others. The existentialist must understand from this the meaning of existence and that existence precedes essence. He or she must also understand the nature of freedom and the responsibility conferred by freedom and the reality of choice. Sartre's statement thus has strong ethical implications and points to the beginning of an analysis of the relationship between the individual and society on several levels. Sartre develops the theme more fully in his various writings.
4. Herbert Marcuse sees the human body in terms derived from both Freud and Marx. He examines psychanalysis as developed by Freud and his followers and notes that according to Freud, the history of man is the history of his oppression:
Culture constrains not only his societal but also his biological existence, not only parts of the human being but his instinctual structure itself. . . such constraint is the very precondition of progress.
The reality principle is indicated by Freud in terms of a change in the governing value system of the individual. Human nature in the state of nature is one thing, while human nature in civilization has been reshaped. As the individual develops during the life cycle, the ego, or the sense of self, changes from encompassing everything to detaching itself from the external world and thus including only the inner world of the self, and in this fashion the individual makes the first step toward the introduction of the reality principle which dominates future development:
The animal man becomes a human being only through a fundamental transformation of his nature, affecting not only the instinctual aims but also the instinctual "values"--that is, the principles that govern the attainment of the aims (Marcuse 12).
Marcuse shows that domination and alienation, as derived from the prevalent social organization of labor, has de...
Friedrich Nietzsche on Investigating Philosophy. (1969, December 31). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 20:47, June 30, 2016, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1303993009.html