For example, the elderly and women do not appear to drink as a means of reducing stress. However, findings repeatedly confirm that adolescents do attempt to reduce stress through alcohol consumption.
The fact that moderating variables act upon and interact with the alcohol/stress relationship has led to the development of what are commonly determine "metatheories" of alcoholism. These theories, in general, postulate that alcoholism is determined by a host of factors and that no one model will eventually explain the entire phenomena that comprise alcoholism and the factors that give rise to the condition. Rather, it is felt by modern day behavioral scientists that conceptual models must address themselves to specific groups drinking under very specific and limited conditions.
Similarly, Glass, Prigerson, Kasl and Mendes de Leon (1995) examined the effect of selected negative life events on changes in alcohol consumption in a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling persons 65 years of age and older. Using the Tension Reduction Hypothesis (TRH) as a framework, the authors tested the hypothesis that exposure to negative life events leads to increased alcohol consumption at follow-up after controlling for baseline alcohol consumption and covariates found to be associated with alcohol use.
In support of their point, Young, Oei and Knight (1990) cite the fact that they could find only two studies which comprehensively attempted to control for tension reduction expectancies, and the findings of both supported a modified tension reduction hypothesis. The modification was that tension reduction was one but not the only reason for drinking behavior. Other determinants were said to be the interaction of pharmacology, expectancy, gender role and the situation in which the drinking occurs. Young, Oei and Knight (1990) note that the findings of these two studies are in accord with the most recent "metatheories" of alcohol use and abuse. Specifically, th