People who succeed in this final, integrative task--doing so only by building on the outcomes of the seven previous crises--gain a sense of order and meaning of their lives within the larger social order, past, present, and future. The virtue that develops at this stage is wisdom which Erikson defines as an informed yet detached concern with life in the proximity of death.
The first section of the review examined research related to the process of retirement and the diverse factors affecting people's experience of the retirement process. On the basis of the reviewed material, several conclusions can be formulated regarding the retire process, the experience of retirement and the demographic and background factors affecting people's experience of the process. These conclusions can be delineated as follows:
People who do not achieve acceptance are overwhelmed by despair. However, Erikson believes that even those who have successfully resolved this crisis experience some despair. There is a healthy need to mourn, not only for one's own misfortunes and lost chances but for the vulnerability and transience of the human condition.
ratings of 44 test items by judges. Point-biserial correlations were computed, and the 15 items with significant item-total score correlations constituted the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS).
(4) Identification with the occupational role can make personal adjustment more difficult following retirement; yet there are indications that re-employment (even if only part-time) can elevate adjustment levels. It can be noted here that studies suggesting these conclusions were cross-cultural using Indian and Israeli samples. However, it seems reasonable to believe that findings could generalize to Americans.
If wages are high, people will remain on the job longer; similarly, if wages are low, people will also remain on the job, selecting to retire only when they feel that they can afford to do so. However, AARP reports that today, beca