5% to 55%, which meant that, at long last, women were becoming more qualified for higher level positions (Glass Ceiling, 2000). As Gene Epstein points out (Barron's, 1999), women were earning 77.1 cents for every dollar earned by men in 1993. He goes on to warn us, however, that the past few years have seen a decline in women's earning power. "By last year," Epstein says, "women were earning only 75 cents for every dollar earned by men and this year the figure looks like it will slip even lower," (1999).
Increased education and training has enabled many more women to go to work, but the disparity between men and women's earning power continues to plague the market. Although progress has been made, Cohn (2000) says that women making more than $20,000 a year (in inflation-adjusted 1998 dollars) rose from only 14% in 1968 to almost 43% in 1998. There are more single women, and more women in upper management. But the "Catch 22" for women involves the way that they are perceived in the work place and the limits seemingly placed on their ability to advance to top managerial jobs. And even if they make it to the "top," one source says, they receive less money for the work they do there. "In fact, women may make it to upper level management but rarely to the top level, which is still an almost all-male club. Among the Fortune 500 companies, there are only 2 female CEOs; among the next 500, there are only five. Wall Street's 'Financial World's' list of the top 100 earners includes no women (Glass Ceiling, 2000).
With this in mind, we shall now turn to the question of leadership styles. Could it be that women are not advanced to the top positions, and are not paid as highly for the positions they do manage to attain because they do not have the "classic " male leadership styles? Women in executive, managerial and administrative jobs earn only 69.2 cents earned by their counterparts, which is significantly lower than the 75 cents...
Female Leaders. (2000, January 01). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 21:16, January 25, 2015, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1304040760.html