As a nation we have made peace and war; as a nation we have vanquished our common enemies; as a nation we have formed alliances, and made treaties, and entered into various compacts and conventions with foreign states.
Jay says that the people developed a federal form of government from an early time and have tended toward that form, and presumably the new Constitution should be structured around this approach.
Rogers M. Smith notes the two streams of political though as to the degree to which Americans can be thought of as alike, with the one being the liberal democratic society in which most people share in a free and equal society, and the alternative which recognizes "the inegalitarian ideologies and institutions of ascriptive hierarchy that defined the political status of racial and ethnic minorities through most of U.S. history" (Smith 549). Smith refers to the society that has developed as embodying multiple traditions. He challenges the thesis of Alexis de Tocqueville that America has been shaped primarily by free and egalitarian ideas and the beneficial material conditions that obtained at the birth of the nation. Still, Smith sets out to challenge de Tocqueville's thesis "by showing that its adherents fail to give due weight to inegalitarian ideologies and conditions that have shaped the participants and the