g., cultural reasons, economic reasons, etc. The Health Belief Model provided a conceptualization of contraceptive services utilization.
(iv) Almost all of the references cited were primary sources which are sources containing the actual cited data. An example of a primary source citation can be found in Ehlers (2003, p. 231) in which a 1995 study by Hallerstedt et. al is directly sourced for words and findings. One of the very few secondary source citations can be found in the discussion of the Health Belief Model. Rather than citing those who developed the model, Ehlers (2003, p.232) discusses the explanation of the model offered by Koziek et. al in their study conducted in 2000.
(I) No hypotheses were formulated as the study merely explored whether reasons for avoiding contraception use and related services observed in prior research were the same reasons stopping sample mothers from using contraception/contraception services. No research questions were formulated either, a clear flaw in the study because doing so would have provided more focus and would have allowed for a specific listing of each variable, a listing which, as noted earlier, was absent until the findings were actually reported.
(ii) & (iii). N/A given the above answer.
(iv) The study was non-experimental (Ehlers 2003, p. 232) and did not manipulate any of the variables studied. Therefore a division of these variables into Independent and Dependent factors would be inappropriate as these designations are reserved for experimental and/or quasi-experimental studies (Meltzoff 1998, pp. 12-23).
(I) & (ii) The population was identified and briefly described in terms of ethnicity, age, and time of delivery required for eligibility criteria.
(iii) The research used a convenience sampling approach, justifying its use on the basis of an inability to trace adolescent mothers meeting eligibility criteria. Methods used to collect the sample were specified. This ...
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