Limitation for studies regarding homeless characteristics, include the focus on only one population, the use of different assessment techniques yielding unclear results, and small sample sizes. The domestic violence studies reviewed used case studies and clinical findings to provide information, which may have yielded limited results, and findings failed to control for confounding variables. In the studies regarding self-concealment, limitations included the operational definitions used, which led to unclear findings.
The following is a review of the literature relevant to the proposed topic regarding the relationships between self-concealment, help-seeking behaviors, and incidence of domestic violence homeless victims, to include: homelessness characteristics, domestic violence, and self-concealment and help-seeking behaviors.
Toro, Bellavia, Daeschler, Owens, Wall, Passero, and Thomas (1995) conducted the most recent study found, regarding the characteristics of the homeless. For their study, a sample of 144 adults, randomly sampled from different homeless and housed poor sites were investigated. Findings showed that the homeless group were: more likely to have a DSM-III diagnosis of substance abuse higher levels of psychological distress as self-related, more likely to be domestic violence victims, more likely to have been physic