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For example, Wilson, Meiklejohn, & Smith, 1991) found that intravenous administration of lignocaine 4 minutes prior to laryngoscopy was effective but 2 minutes prior had no effect. A study is needed to resolve this controversy and determine the most effective route of lidocaine administration.

The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a difference in the effectiveness of topical and intravenous application of lidocaine for the blunting of increased heart rate and blood pressure in patients undergoing laryngoscopy and intubation.

The nursing anesthesiest has the goal of assisting the patient to the greatest degree, without harm. This expertise will return the patient to a healthy state. To reach these goals, the use of any anestesia, including lidocaine, requires an understanding of the most appropriate administration route. The negative effects of laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are recognized to include increased heart rate and blood pressure. Lidocaine offers a solution to these problems, and an understanding of the most effective method of administration will be of assistance to the nurse anesthetist.

Laryngoscopy and intubation interrupt an individual's reflex action. Protective airway reflexes are in place and when violated


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