It was carried out at six elementary schools in the Northwestern United States, and was part of a larger research project, ˘Using Teamwork to Plan Systematic and Functional Environments for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.÷ One of the methods found to be effective in maintaining reasonable discipline in the classroom was to change the seating position of a student to a place where they would be less disruptive, and to have a place away from the group (e.g. at the back of the room) where a student could go when a crisis occurred, i.e. they exhibited disruptive or noncompliant behavior, and sit and compose themself and then return to the group when the crisis had passed.
The idea of a place to take a ˘time-out÷ is also explored by Costenbader and Reading-Brown (1995). A time-out can consist of: removal of social attention; contingent observation, with the student watching from the periphery but not participating in group activities; exclusion time-out, when a student is removed from the reinforcing environment, and sits in the corner of the room; or removal from the classroom altogether and staying alone in a room. However, there are many negative consequences to time-outs, such as it being seen as punishment, it being seen as an escape from undesirable tasks, and that it does not provide alternate positive behavior strategies to the student. In their study, Costenbader and Reading-Brown did not find time-outs were an effective me