However, there are many negative consequences to time-outs, such as it being seen as punishment, it being seen as an escape from undesirable tasks, and that it does not provide alternate positive behavior strategies to the student. In their study, Costenbader and Reading-Brown did not find time-outs were an effective method for controlling behavior in emotionally disturbed students.
Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects need particular attention in the classroom. Their environment is particularly important and plays a vital role in their ability to function. These children experience a heightened level of sensory stimulation from the environment from which they need to be shielded (UCHSC, 2003). They need to operate within clearly defined visual boundaries and have a high need for organization. Masking tape can be used by teachers to mark clearly the working space for each student, particularly when they are working in learning pods or in groups at a table. Masking tape can also be placed around a student's desk to clearly define the boundaries within which he/she can move about so that they do not disturb other students. It may also be helpful to provide a quiet place where a child can retreat for a while to escape from the environment - a tent, pile of blankets, or a large cardboard box will suffice. They can spend quiet time here as a retreat from too much sensory input. They may also use headphones with no input to isolate them from distracting noise in the classroom.
Children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often suffer exacerbations of learning, social and emotional disorders, and represent from three percent to five percent of the school-aged population in the United States (Brand, Dunn and Greb, 2002). Because of their hyperactivity and their lack of attention span, these students require special conditions in the classroom to optimize their learning potential. Several...
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