The effect was to leave Magyar-speaking Hungarians feeling reduced to second-class status--even though, in fact, large numbers, especially of the elite and even of the nascent middle class, did not speak Magyar as an everyday language until a generation or so before Hungarian nationalism emerged as a force. The growth of a Magyar-language press and readership led almost to Hungarian national feelings and demands.
In Indonesia, a Dutch colonial territory became a nation even though that territory embraced a host of separate languages, ethnicities, and heritages, which often had more traditional ties beyond Indonesia than within it.
Some of the peoples on the eastern coast of Sumatra are
not only physically close ... to [the people of Malaysia], but they are ethnically related, understand each other's speech, have a common religion, and so forth. These same Sumatrans share neither mother-tongue, ethnicity, nor religion with the Ambonese, located on islands thousands
of miles further to the east. Yet during this century
they have come to understand the Ambonese as fellow- Indonesians, the Malays as foreigners.
The language we call Indonesian has grown up by sheer happenstance, adapted by Dutch colonialists from a merchants' lingua franca; had they chosen to use Dutch, it might be the language of Indonesian nationalism, just as Portuguese is the language of Angolian nationalism. The formative thread in Indonesia, suggests Anderson, was the colonial educational system, which brought together from its disparate territories the children of local elites, who would continue to feel a common bond to their one-time fellow students.
In each of these cases, the common thread is an actual community of elites, including administrators, intellectuals, and generally the upper and upper-middle classes, bound together by education, career opportunities (and restrictions), and more generally by a common universe of pri...
Idealogy of Nationalism. (1969, December 31). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 16:17, November 29, 2015, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1304079213.html