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Issue Brief for Congress No. RS 20142

Mueller, K. "Hormonal Imbalance: An analysis of the Hormone Treated Beef Trade Dispute Between the United States and the European Union." The Drake Journal of Agricultural Law 1 (1996): 97-118.

This law journal article covers the European Union ban on growth hormone-treated beef from economic, legal, and scientific perspectives, with the strongest emphasis placed on the economic issues affecting international trade. It is important to note, as reported in this article, that the European Union ban on growth hormone-treated beef is not directed specifically at the United States, as most reports on the issue in the United States would have one believe. Both Canada and Brazil have been affected by the European Union ban in addition to the United States. While Canada has joined the United States in contesting the ban, Brazil has agreed to provide only growth hormone-free beef for European exports. This article, thus, will be highly useful in the full examination of the issue.

Southey, C. "Hormone Ban in EU Meat." Trade Environment Database Studies No. 399 (1997): 1-21.

This study examines the use of bovine growth hormones and the effect they have on trade and the environment in the European Union. The study author notes that, since the 1970s, meat producers in the United States have been using hormones to improve the growth rate of animals. These hormones, according to the study author, have greatly increased the growth of livestock, saving farmers both time and money. The natural life cycle of the livestock is cut short by the use of the growth hormones, thus, the meat producers save in the costs that otherwise would be incurred. The European Union has banned the import of beef from the United States because of fear that the hormones are dangerous and may cause health problems in human who ingest them. According to the study author, the ban is controversial because a reasonable consensus exists among scientists in the Uni


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