Perhaps this was felt most strongly among African slaves and Native Americans. Gary Nash (290) states that "in the end, the Indians were disastrous losers in the war of the American Revolution." The Native Americans were regularly displaced from their traditional territorial holdings and were conceptualized as a savage, barbaric, and inferior group of individuals and tribes that needed to be subdued and subjected to the authority of Anglo-Americans. Nash (291) commented that whereas African-Americans eventually achieved emancipation, Native Americans were continually excluded from participation in all of the freedoms and rights ultimately guaranteed by the Bill of Rights when it was appended to the original Constitution.
In creating a strong national government, the founders ultimately diminished the rights of the individual states and rendered the states subordinate to the national government in many different spheres (Norton, et al, 140-141). Just as women, slaves, and Native Americans found themselves at a distinct disadvantage vis-a-vis free white males and even former indentured male servants, so did the states find themselves inhibited in terms of their exercise of autonomy by the federal government.
Nevertheless, "the framers of the Constitution sought to reconcile republican government and social stability by diffusing political power, barring states from abridging the rights of property, and balancing the self-interested ambitions of competing social groups against one another (Foner, 22)." The period was revolutionary, but its effects had very real limits with respect to key groups who remained largely excluded from meaningful participat