cation cues be successful. Those sounds and the meanings attached to them can in turn eventually be attached to cues from the printed page when reading skills are under development. But reading skills, which Thonis refers to as decoding the printed word (p. 191), depend on the successful achievement, then successful transfer, of the earlier developmental steps.
The most important classroom implications of the attributes of transferability of skills from L1 to L2 lie in the importance of identifying the current status of the individual students' competency in using L1 effectively. Thonis says that the English reading teacher should "watch for any problems and attempt to prevent them or to use hem for learning" (p. 193). However, that does not necessarily capture the full realities of classroom dynamics, where individual diagnoses may be difficult to make. The challenge of effective identification of L1 competencies include