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Difference in Cognitive Characteristics of Individuals

In such instances, the presenter's inappropriate use of media leads to substandard outcomes. Thus, one's expectancies influence one's own behaviors, because the tendency is for an individual to choose "actions that will most likely produce desired consequences, based on past experiences" (Epstein, 1986, p. 74). If one's expectancies are distorted or unrealistic, however, it is less likely that appropriate behavioral choices will be made. Distorted and unrealistic expectancies are, in part, the product of one's schemata, or set of unrealistic and irrational beliefs.

Cognitive theory holds that extreme beliefs with respect to "one's self and one's interaction" with one's environment are among the most important of the cognitive phenomena leading to "dysfunctional behavioral responses" (Epstein, 1986, pp. 7475). Basic beliefs most often are learned early in one's life. Thus, the cognitive analysis, whether in the context of an individual therapy situation or in relation to organizational communications, is concerned with the past as well as with the present situations of individuals.

Basic beliefs are used by individuals in the evaluation of life event. Thus, behavior will be evaluated in the context of one's basic beliefs. If these basic beliefs are unrealistic or irrational, one's expectancies will likely also tend to be unrealistic and irrational.

Computer Metaphor Theory Elements of cognitive theory have been challenged by some contemporary researchers. The computer metaphor theory of the cognitive system has been criticized because cognitive computer models (a) are weak in the performance of tasks involving pattern recognition, (b) poor at tasks that involve simultaneous satisfaction of socalled soft constraints, and (c) contrast poorly with the function of the brain (Lloyd, 1990, pp. 9091). The human brain excels at tasks involving pattern recognition. Even the best digital computer or artificial intelligen...

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Difference in Cognitive Characteristics of Individuals. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 20:50, August 20, 2017, from
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