Norwood, S.H. (2002). Strikebreaking and intimidation: Mercenaries and masculinity in twentieth-century America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Larson, T. (1992, Winter). The effect of discrimination and segregation on black male migration. The Review of Black Political Economy, 20, 53-73.
The underlying causes for the riot can be traced to previous events in inner-city urban America in the 1960s. They had much to do with the then-current civil rights struggle, together with what were called the "long, hot summers" of the mid-1960s, which saw race-based violence erupt in many larger American cities. Despite the inability of the Detroit police to establish order after the initial incident, there is a view that excessive police violence was at the heart of the initial black response (Clark, 1971).