80). Most of the examples, however, are of women brutalized by Japanese soldiers. Tanaka does include a few examples of the rape of women during World War II by German forces, as well as mentioning a few instances involving Russians and occupying Allied forces in Japan immediately following Japan's defeat. However, the claim: "It is clear from the preceding accounts that mass rape and rape by enforced prostitution were practiced by forces of many nations" (Tanaka, __, p. 105) is not as strongly supported as the article suggests. This piece is best at considering the psychological and societal forces that make such behavior possible in wartime.
John Dowar's ( ) "Cultures of Defeat" examines the cultural effect of Japan's defeat on its citizens, a culture in which the RAA "comfort women" were a component in placating the occupying forces. His ( ) essay is less concerned with amassing facts and figures and more interested in finding the individual vignettes that personalize the post-war "bittersweet ambiance of life on the margins in a defeated land" (p. 167). He supports his exploration with many images from popular culture that illustrate the visions of itself that he argues were prevalent at the time.
Chapters 5 and 6 of Tanaka's (2002) Japan's Comfort Women examine the abuse of women in Japan by the occupying forces and Japanese authorities just before and immediately following the defeat of Japan. Chapter 5 focuses on sexual violence against women from 1945 to 1946, while the next chapter looks at the ways in which "comfort women" and the RAA were used to stave off the violence against civilians Japanese and Allied officials believed that full-scale occupation could provoke.
Tanaka (2002) notes, "There is no documentary evidence of mass rape by the Allied soldiers during the Pacific War" (p. 110). Nevertheless, this chapter is able to find evidence of egregious instances of violence and rape, especially related to th...
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