Moore, Kennedy, and Fairhurst (2003) conducted an empirical study to explore cross-cultural equivalents of price perceptions between U.S. and Polish consumers. The researchers claim that as the markets of Eastern Europe continue to liberalize they are becoming increasingly important to Western retailers who seek international market opportunities. Moore, et al (2003) compared consumer perceptions of price as a marketplace cue in Polish and U.S. cultures. A hierarchical structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the metric equivalents of price cue measures across a matched sample of 335 Polish and 342 American consumers.
Boger, Hobbs, and Kerr (2001) examined supply chain relationships in the Polish pork sector. The authors stated that the transition period in Poland away from centralized state ownership and toward a market economy was particularly difficult in a number of sectors. This was particularly the case in the fragmented structure of hog production and processing, where new supply chain relationships had to be developed almost immediately. Boger, Hobbs, and Kerr (2001) found that Polish hog producers and their counterparts in the processing sector adopted a model of supply chain relationships largely based on that found in Western countries such as the United States and Great Britain. The difficulty of creating new supply chain relationships was highlighted by these authors who concluded that marketing activities in general tend to be negatively affected in transition periods.
In contrast, a positioning strategy is a broader set of goals, objectives and activities designed to place and market the product in the most effective manner and in such a way that the target market identified in the positioning statement is made aware of the existence and the benefits of the product. The positioning strategy buildings on the positioning statement to move the product from the shelves of the firm or its warehouses to the customer. A position