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History of Poland's Economic Reforms

John III Sobieski defended Vienna against the Turks in 1683 and saved Western Europe from a Turkish invasion.

Prussia, Russia, and Austria all annexed parts of Poland in 1772. A small Polish state was left at the mercy of its enemies. In 1793 Poland was further partitioned among the three powers. The patriot Thaddeus Kosciusko led a peasant army in a national insurrection against the Russians. In 1795 Poland's last remaining territory was occupied by the three partitioning powers. Many Poles fled the country. In 1807 Napoleon supported the formation of a small and weak Polish state, but after Napoleon's defeat by Russia the Russians returned. Czar Alexander I of Russia permitted the existence of a Russian-controlled Polish kingdom. An uprising of the Poles in 1830 was put down by the Russians, who then began a period of suppression of Polish culture and institutions. In 1863 another insurrection resulted in the total extinction of Poland as a separate political unit. The First World War was a catastrophe for all the Empires that had once divided Poland. An independent Republic of Poland was restored. Most of the 19th century Kingdom of Poland, the whole Galicia and most of the former Prussian provinces of West Prussia and Posen together with some areas of present-day Belarus, Lithuania and Ukraine constituted Poland between the Wars. Most German inhabitants of the former Prussian provinces immigrated to Germany. During World War I Russia fought Austria and Germany, often on Polish territory, and during this time the population suffered greatly. The Polish leaders, however, gained the support of the Allies, especially France, and in 1918 an independent Poland again appeared with Jozef Pilsudski as head of state. The pianist Ignacy Paderewski became prime minister.

In 1921 the Soviets and the Poles signed a peace treaty, which gave Poland substantial territories in the east that were mainly populated by Ukrainians and Belorussi...

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