The second group was also opposed to animal research on humane grounds, but did not seek the abolition of such research. Instead, these individuals sought to limit the research that was performed to that which was necessary (Dresser 1148). While those opposed to animal research were able to get some relevant legislation passed in the late nineteenth century in Great Britain, the United States movement was less successful. It was not until late in this century that legislative efforts were successful.
One of the greatest problems that opponents of animal research face is that of the pragmatic achievements of the researchers. For example, researchers could point to the discovery of diphtheria toxin in 1894 and say that it was animal experimentation that made the discovery possible. Although the research opponents attacked on scientific grounds and suggested research alternatives, the scientists were able to cite instances where the use of animals greatly speeded up important discoveries. A side benefit realized by the researchers is that because they were coming under attack, the researchers were forced to become more organized in the work and united in defending against the antivivisectionists.
During the 1970s and 1980s, the American public has become increasingly skeptical of scientific research in general, and that based on animal studies in particular. Nonscientific opponents to research have become skilled in using the media, and in finding financia