Of even greater interest than the wide variety of nonscientists involved in the debate is the number of scientists now challenging the use of animals. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, a record number of conferences were held regarding the use of animals in research (Dresser 1151). This development is especially important when one considers the amount of influence scientists have wielded in defense of animal research.
Animal welfare groups had their first victory in 1979 when they successfully had the New York pound seizure law repealed. Since then, other states and communities have expressly forbidden the use of shelter animals for research. In 1984, Massachusetts not only repealed the pound seizure law, but also prohibited shelters from releasing animals to research facilities or animal dealers. This same law also prohibited research institutions from getting animals from out-of-state shelters.
Faced with decreasing supplies from shelters' animal research organizations began turning to private sources. One company, Charles River, realized sales of $41 million in 1982, up from $3.9 million in 1968. One of its ads in the early 1980s boasted that "more than 10 million CF-1s" had been sold in the previous four years (Stevens 41). What alarms animal welfare workers is that CF-1s are not some manufactured product, but rather are mice. Charles River bought Primate Imports, the largest monkey-collecting firm in the country in 1982, and spent $19 million to upgrade the breeding facilities throughout the world, including Japan, Germany, France and the United Kingdom. A quote by Primate president Henry Foster illustrates the view of big business:
The replacement, reduction and refinement approach used in Sweden refers to three principles used to search for alternatives to animal use:
Reducing the number of animals needed for research also solves the moral problem of raising animals specifically so that they can be used for research. Companies suc