Later still, new technologies such as the Vitascope and inventions by the French team of Louis and Auguste Lumiere set a new standard for film.
Cinematography as a field of specialization can be traced to the turn of the 19th century:
December 28th 1895 can be considered the birthday of projected film presented in a theater. It was then that Antoine LumiTre from Lyon, the director of a plant producing film materials and the father of August and Louis LumiTre, hosted in the Grand CafT of Paris a show of living pictures. It was shot by cameras that his sons had developed, and presented with projectors they had constructed. It was the first time the term 'cinTmatographe' was used, formed of the Greek words 'kinTma' (movement) and 'graphein' (to write, to draw, to inscribe). Among those invited was also the director of the Houdini Theater, the master illusionist Georges MTliFs (History of Cinematography, 2003).
แ According to Giannetti and Eyman (2001, p. 11), ๔the motion picture was an invention with many inventors.๖ Early films were relatively brief and it was not until 1903 when Edwin S. Porter created The Great Train Robbery that movies became longer and special effects such as matte shots of a train passing as seen through a stationhouse window along with various distance shots appeared. The nickelodeon, the works of D.W. Griffith, and new methods of editing, filming, lighting, and employing realistic exterior and inte