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Tobacco Industry Structure and Growth

Nevertheless, the tobacco industry has had, Arno says, "a century of largely successful experience attempting to limit or thwart regulation" (1996, p. 1258). Documents leaked to the New York Times in 1994 by disgruntled ex-employees of Brown & Williamson and by anti-smoking advocate, Stanton Glantz, to the University of California Press, which published them as "The Cigarette Papers" showed, according to Frazer, that "Big Tobacco has known for decades that cigarettes are lethal and addictive and has done everything in its power to suppress and deny that knowledge" (1996, p. 44). Glantz, Barnes, Bero, Hanauer and Slade say that "by the 1960s, Brown & Williamson and B.A.T. had proven in their own laboratories that cigarette tar causes cancer in animals" (1995, p. 222). Nevertheless, the fact remains that, until 1996, "no cigarette maker had ever paid a penny in civil damages" for smoking related deaths or illnesses (Frazer, 1996, p. 43). A plaintiff in the Rose Cippolone case in New Jersey was awarded $400,000 in damages by a jury, but the verdict was overturned by the Supreme Court in 1992 after the Liggett Group spent $75 million on the case (Burroughs & Helyar, 1990, p. 113; and Bloch, 1996, p. 54).

Prior to the 1990s, the industry successfully diluted every effort at regulation by heavy investments in litigation, lobbying efforts, public relations and political contributions. A 1955 ban by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) on the publication of tar and nicotine levels in cigarettes "proved to be a boon to the industry, by enabling it [the industry] to advertise filter cigarettes for their implicit safety even as it raised toxic yields to compensate for the filters" (Frazer, 1996, p. 44). In 1957, Representative John Blatnick of Minnesota mounted an effort in the House Subcommittee on Government Operations to limit the tar and nicotine contents of cigarettes and to grant FTC the power to enjoin deceptive tobacco advertising. Effec...

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Tobacco Industry Structure and Growth. (2000, January 01). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 16:26, November 26, 2014, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1304160564.html
 
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