Sobel, R. (1978). They satisfy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
In 1996, Castleman, citing statistics from the Centers for Disease Control, estimated that cigarette smoking caused 420,000 deaths a year in the United States, including 90 percent of 130,000 lung cancer cases, cost the average heavy smoker (two packs a day or more) an estimated eight years of life and accounted for one in five deaths, 17 times more than resulted from homicide and 50 times more than were related to the use of illegal drugs (1996, p. 68). He estimated that the medical treatment of smoking-related illnesses cost taxpayers about $50 billion a year. In his recently completed study, Kluger disputes the latter figure. He points out that, because of early deaths due to smoking, substantial savings are achieved through the reduction of benefits which would have otherwise have been paid to smokers and that actually the taxes generated by cigarette sales exceed the annual medical costs (1996, p. 29).
Collins, G. (1996, May 16). 2 tobacco giants seek laws to curb teen-age smoking. New York Times, p. A8.
Demands for Regulation and the Industry Response.
Hilts, P. J. (1994, June 18). Quest for safe cigarette never reached goal. New York Times, pp. A1, A22.
Carey, J. (1995, July 31). The FDA's antismoking crusade has the GOP fuming. Business Week, 40.
Castleman, M. (1996, May/June). A life in smoke. Mother Jones, 68-71.
Hanauer, Slade, Barnes, Bero and Glantz say that the industry "has actively sought over the years to develop a 'safe' cigarette, and it has directed much of its research toward that goal" (1995, p. 234). Much of the work was performed by the Battelle Memorial Institute in Geneva for B.A.T. under secret code names like projects Hippo, Ariel and Rio during the 1950s and 1960s and on a smaller scale into the 1980s. The aim was to develop a cigarette with the addictive properties of nicotine but without the toxicity of the conventional cigarette. These projects were a