He says that biological weapons consist of biological warfare agents --i.e "living microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses that cause fatal or incapacitating diseases, as well as toxins--nonliving poisons extracted from bacteria, plants, and animals, or synthesised in the laboratory," together with the means used to deliver them, such as bombs, shells, aerosol sprays, etc. (Introduction 4).
Since ancient times, men have made crude uses of pathogens and toxins, such as poisoned arrows and diseased animal and human cadavers, to disable or kill their enemies. Advances in bacteriology and scientific instruments enabled scientists in the late 19th century to isolate in the laboratory and to produce stocks of deadly bacteria, such as anthrax which was cultured by bacteriologist Robert Koch in 1877 and viruses, such as smallpox against some of which vaccines were developed in the 20th century.
Bernstein said that "until World War II no modern state had employed or even developed a significant capacity for offensive biological warfare" (9). Not until then were sophisticated means developed for producing biological weapons which could be safely handled and delivered onto military and civilian targets. Because of these scientific constraints, the only WMD wh