In the systems management approach, managers define the company as a system, establishing system objectives¨performance criteria¨and then identifying wider systems¨the environment¨and create formal subsystems that are then integrated with the whole system (˘The Systems Approach to Management÷). Expectancy theory, or ˘the idea that workers are driven by complex internal processes of motivation,÷ is a component of systems management, as is contingency theory, which postulates that ˘there is no single best approach to leadership÷ (˘The Systems Approach to Management÷).
Of the three management styles, the systems management approach is most effective in the criminal justice system, because it promotes unity and cohesiveness within the organization without sacrificing efficiency and effectiveness. Scientific management is technically efficient but too monotonous for most workers to handle, in addition to being too highly specified for criminal justice, which requires workers to make split-second decisions and develop creative responses to unique situations. Human relations management results in an organization that is too lax for criminal justice, where the supervisor is a buddy instead of an authority. Although criminal justice work requires good interpersonal relations like most other work, it cannot be built on informal ˘buddy÷ connections that could compromise its power and integrity.
A case can be made for having all three components of the criminal justice system¨the police, courts, and corrections¨use the same type of management style. Systems management would work effectively in all three components, and the common management style would add to the cohesiveness of the system. However, corrections might be more effective in some cases