Teacher Performance Expectations
Teacher expectations arise because teachers generally have a preconceived notion of what it takes to succeed in school. According to Rist (1970), most teachers believe that there is an "ideal type" of student who possesses characteristics which will insure academic success (p. 73). On the first day of class, a teacher makes an evaluation of the students in order to determine whether they fit this "ideal type" or not. This evaluation is subjective and it is based solely on the perceptions of the teacher (p. 73). As such, the expectations of the teacher are derived not from "formal testing of the children as to their academic potential or capacity for cognitive development" but rather on the basis of the students' "behavioral and cultural characteristics" (Rist, 1970, pp. 81-82). Dusek & Joseph (1983) conducted an analysis of various studies in order to determine the bases of teacher expectancies. These researchers found that gender and belonging to a one-parent family were usually not determinants of teacher expectations. In addition, they found that sex role behavior, name stereotypes, and the performance of a student's siblings were "at best weakly associated with teacher expectancies" (p. 341). On the other hand, Dusek & Joseph discovered that there are five factors which are definitely related to teacher expectancies. These are: attractiveness (academic and social/personality), student classroom conduct, cumulative folder in

 
 
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    Rosenthal Jacobson | Dupuis Badiali | Ornstein Levine | Dusek Joseph | According Paley | Age Kozol | According Rist | United Unfortunately | African-American Latino | English Chunn | chunn 1988 | teacher expectations | rist 1970 | hallinan 1988 | dupuis badiali | expectations students | oakes 1985 | dupuis badiali 1988 | ability tracking | badiali 1988 | low ability | rosenthal jacobson 1968 | dusek joseph 1983 | ornstein levine 1989 | low achieving students |  
   
 
 
 
   
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