Kim (257) holds ultimately that some form of dualism (if not Cartesian dualism) is the only rational alternative to nonreductive materialism.
Nagel (63) argued that "true intentionality cannot occur in a being incapable of consciousness." Consciousness therefore appears in this philosopher's view to be associated with causality at least to the degree that actions which occur are intentional and may be rooted in neurophysiological processes. Nagel (68) believes that it is important to stand "theoretically astride the boundary between objective spatiotemporal physical reality and the subjective contents of experience."
Swinburne (311) distinguishes between properties and events with respect to whether or not they are physical or mental. Rejecting hard materialism as well as soft materialism, Swinburne (315) rejects hard dualism in which it is assumed that the soul has a necessary morality and that if the soul is separated from the body it will continue to exist. Instead, Swinburne (315) advocates a wider position of soft dualism in which during normal earthly life, the soul is dependent for its functioning (understood as having a mental life) on the functioning of the body. When the body ceases to function the soul does, too. This approach to dualism stands against nonreductive materialism and appears to mitigate against Kim's (257) rejection of any retrogression to Cartesian interactionist dualism.
Another voice, that of Willard (45), argues that noetic unity presupposes logical relations and a pattern of simultaneous and successive awareness that intercommunicates across a wide range of mental states, acts, and their objects. Knowing and knowledge as noetic entities encompass all mental state types and acts whereas knowledge is something that must be possessed and ultimately acquired. This analyst asserts that by inference, nonreductive materialism has numerous problems with regard to causation which render it una...
Materialism vs Dualism. (1969, December 31). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 12:18, November 26, 2014, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1304203168.html