S. efforts to develop adult non-traditional study opportunities. Her most important contribution was her 1981 publication, Adults as Learners, which was designed to synthesize as much information as was currently available on adult learning and served as a primary text for several years in North American graduate courses in adult learning. She popularized ideas about barriers ro adult learning, studies of participation, and developmental stages, and introduced two conceptual frameworks to describe various aspects of adult learning and to simulate related research.
The first of these concepts was the Chain-of-Response (COR) which pertains to adult participation in learning (Hiemstra). This was the rough beginning of a conceptual framework designed to identify the relevant variables and to hypothesize their interrelationships. Cross delineated some common elements of earlier participation models for COR: motivation to participate is the result of an individualĂs perception of both positive and negative forces; personality types with low self-esteem are difficult to attract to education; congruence exists between participation and anticipation of learning outcomes; lower order needs for safety and security must be met before higher order needs for achievement and self-actualization can be met; expectations of reward are important to motivation. In this model, there are two-way relationships between self-evaluation and attitudes about education; importance of ma