A transformational leader is seen as an individual who seeks to empower subordinates, to motivate subordinates to become self-authorizing, and as a leader who is able to overcome resistance to change. Transformational managers and supervisors use authority carefully and view subordinates as potential innovators. The transformational leader of today is the proactive leader of yesterday. The phraseology may have changed, but the message is the same: effective supervisors and managers are those individuals who are able to motivate subordinates to performance excellence (Ivancevich, 1998).
Working well with subordinates is therefore a key to effective supervision and management. Beyond good communication skills and the ability to motivate others, successful supervisors and managers also serve as role models (Ivancevich, 1998). They are individuals who exhibit high levels of ethical and moral behavior and who require such behavior of their subordinates. As significantly, successful supervisors and managers recognize that organizations are cultures with norms, mores, and values. They attempt at all times to ensure that these norms, mores, and values meet high expectations and that the organization's culture inspires loyalty in its members.
The competent manager or supervisor is also an individual who believes in the necessity of lifelong learning and who is personally open to change and is responsive to change and innovation (Boyatzis, 1982; Ivancevich, 1998). This supervisor or manager undertakes such roles as coach, helper, change agent, disciplinarian, recruiter, and cheerleader. He or she adjusts his or her managerial or supervisory style to the exigencies of a particular situation.
Successful managers and supervisors are flexible and are responsive to changes in the internal and external environment. They take risks while remaining focused on strategic goals and objectives indigenous