The failure of the attempted coup d'etat against the Gorbachev government in the Soviet Union in 1991 led directly to both the official disestablishment and the official disenfranchising of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Goldman, 1991, p. 30). Writing the Communist Party out of government in the Soviet Union, in turn, made it possible for the introduction of economic changes that, in effect, marked an end to Soviet socialism, unless it is reborn at some later date (Toffler & Toffler, 1991, p. 37).
The general assumption in the western international press appears to be that the failure attempted coup d'etat caused the collapse of Soviet socialism. In fact, the attempted coup d'etat was just a manifestation of the collapse of Soviet socialism. The collapse of Soviet socialism began with the ascendancy to power of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985. By the time of the attempted coup d'etat in 1991, Soviet socialism was already dead. The only thing that the failure of the attempted coup d'etat was to hammer the nails into Soviet socialism's coffin. While the success of the coup d'etat might well have reintroduced some of the dictatorial political characteristics of Soviet socialism, even the so-called Communist hardliners in the Soviet parliament were, prior to the attempted coup d'etat, calling for the forced introduction of market-oriented economic reforms (Toffler, 1991, p. 31).
The political changes which began to occur in the Eastern Europe socialist bloc in the summer of 1989 are, more than anything else, a rejection of one-party rule. In the Eastern European socialist bloc, Communist Party parliamentary majorities had been constitutionally institutionalized. With these institutionalized parliamentary majorities, the various national Communist parties manipulated the power of government to repress political dissent, and to impose a rigid centrally planned economic regime. The more-or-less peaceful political revolutions o...
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