And fourth, because production and distribution costs for most studio films are so inherently high, the studios usually hedge their bets with expensive name stars, name producers, and name directors (Goodell, 1998, p. 14).

Studio executives claim the high cost of making films is the result of the increasing importance of the overseas market, the cost of franchise films they can merchandise at stores or exploit in sequels and in theme parks, and the fact that actors and crew involved in a studio picture expect to be paid top dollar and are unwilling to cut their fees as many do when making independent films (Goodell, 1998, p. 14). There is also fear among these executives that if they make more risky films and they fail at the box-office, they will lose their jobs (Goodell, 1998, p. 14). This latter explanation also reveals why so many studio movies are indistinguishable from one another. Once the studio finds a successful formula for a movie, it will rely upon that formula until it finally fails.

An alternative to the studio film is the independent film. Studios periodically take risks with independent filmmakers, especially if they feel those filmmakers have their finger on the pulse of the large youth market (Goodell, 1998, p. 7). But Goodell argues that for these filmmakers to remain fully independent, they must find financing somewhere other than the studio. Not

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    Witch Project's | Location Shooting | America MPAA | Insurance Finally | Total100% Russo | Dreamworks SKG | Alfred Hitchcock | Star Wars | Harmon Lawrence | Location Units | bernstein 1997 | gates 1998 | cones 1995 | goodell 1998 | film production | production manager | shooting script | cleve 1994 | production schedule | garey 1992 | bernstein 1997 256 | harmon lawrence 1997 | gates 1998 45 | gates 1998 4 | bernstein 1997 253 |  
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