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Objective and Subjective View on Gender and Ethnicity

The writer examines daily examples of child resistance through the establishment and enforcement of rules at mealtime in four Australian families. She concentrates on a situation often overlooked by sociologists -- everyday parent-child friction and resistance, and sees young children as actively involved in contest and power negotiation relationships with the family. She examines conversation and conflict episodes to indicate how mealtime rituals act as techniques of discipline for the normalization of children. Although defiance and contestation occurred in all families studied, the creation and enforcement of mealtime rules were a regulatory mechanism for bringing up boys and girls in different ways. Girls were encouraged to help in the preparation, serving, and cleaning after meals, whereas boys were not, but were waited on by mothers and sisters.

Griffin, G. (1998). Understanding heterosexism - the subtle continuum of homophobia. Urbana, 21, pp. 33-39.

An overbearing presence of heterosexism in American society highlights the hierarchy of heterosexuality as a power over homosexuality. Griffin considers it a "pervasive social disease which is widely (and silently) accepted throughout family, society, and the media." She considers nearly all the media exclusively heterosexual, since it constantly reflects on the desires of society, and that the way society is constructed and the influence media have in our society only work to implement heterosexism. Griffin sets out to shift society's reference points such that people as they are, (including asexuals, bisexuals, and homosexuals) are considered by society to be "normal." She does this using excerpts from her own journals describing her own homosexual encounters.

Halpern, J. J. (1997). Elements of a script for friendship in transactions. J. Conflict Res., 41, pp. 835-868.

Script theory provides a coherent, holistic structure for understanding socially mediated b...

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Objective and Subjective View on Gender and Ethnicity. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 02:42, August 18, 2017, from
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