e., women could only have vulgar heterosexual relationships with men; intellectual love was thought to exist only in homosexual male relationships) (7). Moreover, the author points out, there is an "endless catalogue of rape in Greek myth," and explains two contradicting views on this issue. One view, held by Helen Duetsch, suggests that the rape images merely reflect women's masochistic tendencies. The other view, held by psychologist Karen Horney, suggests that such fantasies are merely the by-product of society's repression of women (12).
Pomeroy continues her study by examining the Homeric Epic. She notes that Helen of Troy was supposedly so beautiful that the Greeks made war against the Trojans for 10 years to get her back (17). While the author also comments on the different theories for why the war against the Trojans was actually fought, she also states that women were powerful figures in Greek mythology. She lists the underlying reasons for the power which women held in mythology as ranging from political and economic (18) to the fact that women were symbolically and literally viewed as properties and therefore that "domination over them increased the male's prestige" (25).
During the Dark Age, or pre-Classical period, Pomeroy maintains that great class struggles and many changes in governmental patterns affected women's role in ancient history. Notably,