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Animal Rights

System structure is heterarchical, established by an egalitarian interplay of interconnected parts. Thus, Humans are both ontologically and phylogenetically unseparated from the rest of nature.

Ecocentrism rejects the premise that humans occupy a privileged place in nature. Non-human nature has intrinsic value, independent of human values and human consciousness; thus, limits are placed on the extent of human prerogatives to use and alter nature. Noninterference in naturally evolving systems is a primary duty. Ethical priority is given to wholes over parts.

Defense of Animal Rights/Animal Liberation

The issue of the ethics surrounding the use of animals in medical and other biological experimentation for purposes of research is linked inextricably to the animal rights/animal liberation movement, which provides the strongest and most vocal opposition to the practice. Proponents of medical and other scientific experimentation involving the use of non human animals contend that prohibitions or restrictions on the use of such animals in medical and other experimentation will impede the development of new medicines, retard the refinement of surgical techniques and the training of surgeons, and increase the costs of medical care for human beings. Proponents of medical and other scientific experimentation further justify the use of animals in such activities on the ground that the use of human beings for such purposes is unthinkable. T


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Animal Rights. (2000, January 01). In Retrieved 13:28, October 25, 2014, from
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