16). This is true even among those therapists whose work is with physically disabled persons where art therapy can assist in mental and physical rehabilitation.
The term "art therapy" is used here to refer primarily to work with the visual arts. As DeVore (1989) notes, the term is sometimes used to refer to a number of activities--although the more general "arts therapy" or "creative therapy" work better--and therapists can be certified by associations for dance, music, and drama therapies as well as for therapy employing the visual arts. Although, since these are still emerging fields (even though they have existed for such a long time), there are many employers, including psychiatrists and special schools that use the term art therapist to refer to many people even though "no similar educational preparation, no set of qualifications, nor even any voluntary association binds [them] together" (Ulman, 2001, p. 16).
The problems of certification and general recognition for qualifications are being addressed by the American Art Therapy Association and a number of educational institutions have begun to offer certification in the various specialties. But one of the drawbacks is the historical split, at least for visual-arts therapists, that has existed between those who place greater emphasis on art and those who make therapy their central concern. The latter group, which believes that "preoccupation with artistic goals must be minimized in favor of a speci