Even when children are not referred to adult courts, the systems to which they are assigned is often modeled on the adult counterparts. Steven H. Rosenbaum (1999, October) observes, ABoth physically and operationally, juvenile facilities are increasingly like adult jails and prisons . . . despite the very different needs and legal rights of juveniles@ (p. 154). Yet, as Richard E. Redding (1999, April) points out:
Juvenile court adjudication . . . may lack the same reliability as [an adult] criminal court . . . There generally is not a trial by jury; juvenile courts often follow evidentiary and procedural rules less rigorously and, in practice, the system . . . may tend to adjudicate juveniles as delinquent without sufficient evidence to establish guilt beyond a reasonable doubt (p. 94).
Kotlowitz=s book focuses on two inner-city brothers whose encounters with juvenile justice always seem to begin with the presumption of their guilt.
Rosenbaum, chief of the Special Litigation Section of the Civil Rights Division of the U. S. Department of Justice, outlined some of the other significant problems with the juvenile justice system in America. He (1999, October) writes, AMajor issues we see repeated in troubled institutions have to do with crowding, special needs populations (especially juveniles who are very young, mentally ill or mentally retarded), the increased use of adult correctional practices in juvenile facilities and education@ (p. 149).
Crowding stretches institutional resources and often prevents institutions from separating Avulnerable juveniles from those who may harm them@ (Rosenbaum, 1999, October, p. 149). It also makes giving adequate education difficult or impossible, magnifying the problems faced in ordinary classrooms with too many students and not enough teachers by adding the element of the delinquency of those students to an already complex mix.
Juveniles with special needs are sometimes more likely to ...
Pros and Cons of Juvenile Crime System. (2000, January 01). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 10:58, October 31, 2014, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1304281361.html