When parent involvement was added, there were no differences between achievement of children whose mothers worked full time or did not work. Students of mothers employed part-time outperformed all others, even when involvement was controlled. It was concluded that maternal employment status was associated with middle school academic behavior and part-time employment was linked to higher overall levels of involvement and higher test scores, compared to full-time employment. Mothers working full-time are at a disadvantage regarding school participation: they engage less in school activities, impose less structure on their child's activities, and their children spend more time in unsupervised activity. Parental involvement was a factor in student achievement regardless of work status.
More recent studies support early conclusions regarding the importance of parental involvement in their child's education. Bracy (2001) supported the view that working poor parents are unable to participate in school involvement, which is associated with poor academic outcomes. Bracy presented a study in which 1280 mothers were asked to rate their child's behavior. Families were divided into those living in poverty and those above the poverty line. For mothers with children in the lowest quartile for reading, 40% of those above the poverty line had no paid sick leave and 67% of those below the poverty line had no paid sick leave. For mothers below the poverty line with children with behavioral problems 71% had no paid sick leave, compared to 36% of mothers not in poverty; 46% had no paid vacation and 67% could not leave their job sites. Thus, poverty and work schedules resulted in problems when teachers attempted to hold meetings, even outside of school hours and this inhibited parent involvement.
Parent involvement is associated with increased student success, while academic level of parents, socioeconomic level of parents, or ethnic or ...
The Need of Parental Guidance of African American High School Students. (2000, January 01). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 10:09, July 26, 2016, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1304295269.html