Smudging with wormwood, sage, cedar, sweet grass, juniper, and pine needles helps to purify the healing space and all involved (healer, patient, helpers, ritual objects), to induce a spiritual mind set, to increase the awareness of forces that are helpful and disease-causing, and to invite and provide respect to helping spirits. Prayer and chant includes communion, invocation, petition, and sacred expression. This helps the mind focus on healing, love, peace, acceptance, and trust. Prayer also expands the receptiveness of the consciousness of all involved and invokes healing forces. This also helps the patient to feel worthy of divine help. Herbs are administered at this time. Music in any form (voice, drum, rattle, flute, whistle, rasp, clacker, violin, and bull roarer) act as prayer to induce harmony and unity among participants and accompany dance and ceremony. Counseling (to include talking, advising, dream/vision interpretation, guidance from nature, healing imagery, and humor) is used to determine disease causes (physical, behavioral, and spiritual), determine sources of inner strength and understanding, encourage changes, provide coping strategies, and strengthen relationships with family and community. Energy therapies are used to heal the body, mind, and spirit. They are used to relive pain and transmit healing energy, intent, and spiritual power.