Criticisms of these goals include that economic sanctions pose a threat to the free trade across nations.
Kmietowicz, Z. (2003). Governments failing to invest in education and health. British Medical Journal, 327(7419), 829. This article presents the argument that governments must do more to meet the needs of international development. They fail to invest in education and health, which does not support young people and will result in serious consequences.
Marchal, B., & De Brouwere, V. (2004). Global human resources crisis. The Lancet, 363(9427), 2191-2192. This article presents the notion that international players have a large influence over the policy-making and agenda-setting of developing countries that are dependent on them. A review of this influence in six African countries is examined and findings are presented.
Ovaska, T. (2003). The failure of development aid. Cato Journal, 23(2), 175-188. This article presents the notion that development aid to poor countries over the last 50 years has resulted in disappointing outcomes. A study of 86 developing countries presents findings that do not support this aid. Findings showed that international development aid from 1975 to 1998 did not help developing countries.
Putzel, J. (1998). The business of aid: Transparency and accountability in European Union development assistance. The Journal of Development Studies, 34(3), 71-96. This article presents an examination of international aid, particularly that of European Union development assistance. Problems of democratic accountability are noted.
Schuurman, F. J. (2000). Paradigms lost, paradigms regained? Development studies in the twenty-first century. Third World Quarterly, 21(1), 7-20. This article presents an analysis of the reasons for the loss of central issues in development efforts. International development aid has lost sight of the important reasons for aid.