Johnson, P., & Kuttab, E. (2001, Autumn). Where have all the women (and men) gone? Reflections on gender and the second Palestinian Intifada. Feminist Review, 69, 21-43.
Merina, V. (2001, October). Covering Arab Americans: Minimizing harm to a vulnerable community. The Quill, 89, 32-33.
Running in parallel with nation-state dynamics was the forceful emergence of the PLO as the dominant Palestinian voice after the Arab states were discredited by their performance in the Six-Day War. From that time until 1971, the PLO became an institutution and cross-national rallying point for all Palestinians. It was, however, factionalized, having identity as a very loose coalition of anti-Israeli paramilitary groups. What was constant in PLO doctrine was rejection of 242, its charter calling instead for "the liquidation of the Zionist presence" (PLO Charter, 1968; Gresh, 1985).
Mneimneh (2003) contributes to the idea of an enlarged and increasingly decentralized Arab media experience in his detailed examination of a widely disseminated "Letter to the American People" in 2002, supposedly written by Osama bin Laden and cataloguing Arab grievances against the West, and a rejoinder "What We're Fighting For" articulating American values. The "intra-Arab" debate that followed reportedly entailed a range of media from print to Internet to satellite television, and a range of opinion from extremists at either end of the cultural/political spectrum to the "measured response" (p 927) of Arab intellectuals. The overarching point is that the debate was a cultural signpost of independence of thought and from Arab states. More generally, Al-Obaidi (2003) contends that the national-development role of media in the Arab states is moving away from governmental dominance in some states to promote democratic values.
Gamson, W. A. (1992). Talking politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bahry, L.Y. (2001, June). The new Arab media phenomenon: Qatar's al-Jazeera. Middle East Policy,