Abraham Maslow on Human Motivation Theories
S. (e.g., Adler, Fromm, Horney) as well as Gestalt and Freudian psychologists. He was later to express a great gratitude for this time in his life and the people he met, whom he referred to as wonderful people who mentored him. He was to recall this time in his life very fondly.

However, it was not until he served as the chair of psychology at Brandeis that he began to work on the ideas that are the hallmark of his life, the notions of a need hierarch in human motivation and of the highest level in this hierarchy, namely, self-actualization. It was also at Brandeis that he began his general theoretical work. In later life Maslow was plagued by ill health and withdrew from full time teaching. He said that it was a very difficult time for him. He felt that there was so much he still wanted to do but was physically unable to do it. His last years were spent in semi-retirement in California until he died on June 8, 1970 of a heart attack.

Potter-Efron (1998: 1-51) defines motivation as that which drives us or makes us take action. Thus, motivation can be said to consist of the forces or drives within a given individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended. Maslow's theories centered around specifying the pivotal factors that motivate human beings.

In particular, Maslow's (1954: 80-122) primary and best known motivational conceptions centered around the postulation of a need hierarchy, at the top of which was a construc

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