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A Determination on Freewill and Reason

This rule would hold for the whole series. However, if the conditioned are appearances, it does not at all follow that their cause can be given. The fallacy in the argument is that reason conflates the crucial distinction between appearances and thingsinthemselves: "the major premiss of the cosmological inference takes the conditioned in the transcendental sense of a pure category, while the minor premiss takes it in the empirical sense of a concept of the understanding applied to mere appearances" (Kant 444).

If "conditioned" were taken in the same way in both premises, the antinomy would be unresolvable. However, transcendental idealism provides the key to the solution by establishing and explaining the crucial distinction between appearances and thingsinthemselves. Transcendental idealism asserts that everything is intuited in space and time; objects of experience are mere representations which have no independent existence outside our thought. Space and time are themselves only representations whose existence is determined by our thoughts. Objects of experience are real only by virtue of their empirical relation with our consciousness, whereas thingsinthemselves possess reality independent of our consciousness of them. In fact, we can never know things as they are in themselves because we can only apprehend appearances connected in space and time. Our intuition, which apprehends the manifold synthesized by imagination into knowledge, "is strictly only a receptivity, a capacity of being affected in a certain manner with representations" (Kant 441). Because thingsinthemselves have no relation to space and time, we are utterly incapable of knowing them. We can never know this transcendental object; we can only know the appearances to which it gives rise.

This separation between the phenomenal and noumenal realms manifests itself in the twofold character of causality. Causality has an empirical character and ...

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A Determination on Freewill and Reason. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 23:36, November 26, 2015, from
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