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Anatomy of the Knee Joint and the ACL

It was confirmed that the ACL, PCL, and TSC all lie within the same space (15:1433-1435).

The ACL composition includes fibroblasts surrounded by an extracellular matrix of water and a solid, ordered arrangement of macromolecules, primarily type I collagen. Collagen is the main constituent of the ACL, most is type I (90 percent) and the remainder is type III (10 percent). The ACL contains a small amount of elastin (less than 5 percent), however it is important to the organization and function of the extracellular matrix. Elastin allows for some of the tensile resistance in ligament tissue and some of its elastic recoverability; it interacts with the collagen fibers of the ligament. Proteoglycans make up around one percent of the dry weight of the ACL. They have an important role in the organization of the extracellular matrix and interaction with tissue fluid. Glycoproteins are noncollagenous protein molecules (fibronectin, laminin) that are believed to facilitate interactions between the cells and surrounding matrix. Water is 60 percent or more of the weight of a ligament. It is associated with the ground substance of the ligament (proteoglycans) and supplies the lubrication for the gliding of collagen fibers and conferring viscoelastic properties to the ligament (4:135-136).

Most of the blood supply to the ACL comes from the ligamentous branches of the middle genicular artery and some terminal branches of the medial and lateral inferior genicular arteries. The synovial membrane surrounding the ligament is filled with vessels originating predominantly from the ligamentous branches of the middle genicular artery. Some smaller terminal branches of the lateral and medial inferior genicular arteries contribute some vessels to the synovial plexus via its connection to the infrapatellar fat pad. The synovial vessels form a web network to ensheathe the ligament; these give rise to smaller connecting branches that penetrate t...

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Anatomy of the Knee Joint and the ACL. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 06:37, November 30, 2015, from
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