Aristotle on Rhetoric
Socrates uses the question and answer method now called Socratic dialogue to provoke his opponent into specificity instead of empty phrases and imagery.

When Gorgias cannot give a name to what oratory is or does, Socrates makes his first and most significant point: if a ˘craft÷ is only to talk about other crafts that have a measurable product, it must be integral to those other crafts and have no meaning or value independent of them. For example, a sound shoemaker should be able to offer a speech about making shoes, including what makes a good shoe in comparison to a bad shoe and so on and so forth. According to Plato, society has little or not need for a class of useless professionals whose only benefit is to talk about what others actually do.

Throughout Gorgias, Socrates refutes the concept that the greatest good is ˘the ability to persuade by speeches judges in a law court, councilors in a council meeting, and assemblymen in an assembly or in any other political gathering that might take place÷ (Plato, 1997, 799). If oratory is a producer of persuasion like Gorgias maintains, Socrates argues that other disciplines like painting and mathematics are also forms of persuasion ű and they may be no more or less suited to serve as a means of determining what takes place in a city-state than oratory. Therefore, it is only through struggling together in commo

 
 
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