In Rhetoric, Aristotle maintains that there are three kinds of persuasive appeals: Logos; Pathos; Ethos. Logos has to do with appeals to the reason of the audience. Pathos appeals to the emotions of the audience. Ethos is appeal based on the speaker's character. Such appeals are internal arguments that help a speaker persuade his audience of the validity of what is being said. Logos, Pathos and Ethos are also known as artistic proofs that, according to Simmons (2001), "provide resources of communication that are available to the public speaker or persuader" (48).
In Poetics, Aristotle provides his philosophy of art, tragedy, and epic drama. Aristotle moved his own construction of art as imitation of nature from the writing of Plato, who also asserted that art is imitation. In Poetics, Aristotle justified poetry (and other arts) as valid on two grounds: the truth and validity of art as imitation of nature, or as a form of knowledge, and secondly the morally desirable effect of this awareness on the human mind, (Bate, 1970, p. 14). In Poetics, Aristotle (1957) maintains that tragedy is "an imitation not only of a complete action, but also of incidents arousing fear and pity (p. 637). Central to Aristotle's philosophy as to the definition of art is his view of katharsis, a process which operates by first exciting and then calming emotion. Tragic drama not only arouses the sympathetic identification of the audience by presenting and imitation of human nature - but also, by appealing to the instinct for harmonia as well as mimesis (imitation), presents an ordered and proportioned regularity of structure interrelated through Aristotle's law of "probability and necessity," (Bate, 1970, p. 18). Aristotle also maintained that unities of time, place, and space must be included in tragedy, along with a beginning, midd