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ADHD: Regarded as a Medical Condition

According to experts, "Children with ADHD may frequently move from one uncompleted task to another, consequently affecting their knowledge acquisition and grades" (Schwiebert, Sealander, and Tollerud, 1995, p. 251). These children routinely make heedless or careless errors in their work because they fail to wait for instructions to be completed: "When faced with tasks or situations in which they are encouraged to delay seeking gratification and work toward a longer-term goal and larger reward, they often opt for the immediate, smaller reward that requires less work to achieve" (Barkley, 1990, p. 42).

The third primary characteristic of ADHD is hyperactivity. ADHD children are unable to sit still: "Restlessness, fidgeting, and generally unnecessary gross bodily movements are commonplace" (Barkley, 1990, p. 42). According to DSM-IV criteria, hyperactivity also manifests itself in the ADHD child as excessive talking, inability to engage in leisure activities quietly, excessive running or climbing, and a general impression of being constantly on the go (Hinshaw, 1994, p. 13). Because ADHD is more commonly diagnosed in boys, few researchers have studied differences in the manifestation of the disorder by sex. The limited number of girls in clinical populations prompts many investigators to include only boys in their research. Most studies which have examined gender and ADHD have found that the disorder appears similarly in boys and girls (Hinshaw, 1994, p. 80). Other investigators report that boys exhibit more intense levels of aggressive and antisocial behavior and that girls more often suffer cognitive problems, language disability, and diminished neurological status (Hinshaw, 1994, p. 80). In general, girls were found to be more socially withdrawn and to have more internalized symptoms (e.g., anxiety or depression) of ADHD than boys (Barkley, 1990, p. 67). The tendency of boys to be more aggressive and antisocial partia...

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ADHD: Regarded as a Medical Condition. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 11:00, November 26, 2015, from
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